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Crude Oil & Natural Gas Production

Crude oil production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 is about 28.171 Million Metric Tonne (MMT) by ONGC, OIL and Private/ JV Companies. About 68.5% of crude oil is by ONGC and OIL from nomination regime and remaining 31.5% of crude oil production is by Private/JV companies from PSC regime.

In 2014-15, the share of offshore crude oil production was about 50.2%. The remaining crude oil production was from 6 States viz., Andhra Pradesh (0.7%), Arunachal Pradesh (0.2%), Assam (12.1%), Gujarat (12.5%), Rajasthan (23.7%) and Tamil Nadu (0.6%). The details of crude oil production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 and last 5 years are as under:

State-wise Crude Oil Production Trends (Thousand Metric Tonnes)

State-wise Crude Oil Production Trends (Thousand Metric Tonnes)
State/Source 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 (upto Dec)
Onshore
Andhra Pradesh 303 305 305 295 297 184
Arunachal Pradesh 129 116 118 120 111 60
Assam 4743 4724 5025 4863 4709 3403
Gujarat 5962 5904 5778 5332 5061 3534
Rajasthan 447 5149 6553 8593 9180 6679
Tamil Nadu 238 233 246 238 226 176
Total Onshore 11822 16431 18025 19441 19854 14036
Share of PSUs 11089 11031 11231 10605 10117 7301
Share of Private/JV 733 5400 6794 8836 9413 6735
Offshore
Share of PSUs 17154 16972 16328 15617 15541 12108
Share of Private/JV 4529 4282 3733 2804 2663 2027
Total Offshore 21683 21254 20061 18421 18204 14135
Grand Total 33505 37685 38086 37862 37788 28171

Natural Gas Production

Natural gas production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 is about 25.319 Billion Cubic Metre (BCM) or 92.1 MMSCMD by ONGC, OIL and Private/ JV Companies. About 73.7% of natural gas production was by ONGC and OIL from nomination regime and remaining 26.3% of natural gas production was by Private/JV companies from PSC regime.

The share of offshore natural gas production in 2014-15 was about 74%. The remaining natural gas production including CBM was from 10 States viz., Andhra Pradesh (1.5%), Arunachal Pradesh (0.1%), Assam (8.9%), Gujarat (4.6%), Rajasthan (3.4%), Tamil Nadu (3.6%), Tripura (3.3%), Jharkhand (0.01%), Madhya Pradesh (0.01%) and West Bengal (0.6%). The details of Natural gas production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 and last 5 years are as under:

State-wise Natural Gas Production Trends (MMSCMD)

State-wise Natural Gas Production Trends (MMSCMD)
State/Source 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 (upto Dec)
Onshore
Gujarat 6.7 6.2 6 5.6 4.5 4.2
Assam 7.4 7.4 8 8 7.9 8.2
Andhra Pradesh 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.2 1.4
Tamil Nadu 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.3
Tripura 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.3 3.0
Rajasthan 0.7 1.2 1.6 1.9 2.7 3.1
Arunachal Pradesh 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
CBM-WB, MP, Jharkhand 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.62
Total Onshore 23.8 23.5 24.9 24.3 24.7 23.92
Share of PSU 22 21.5 23 22.2 21.8 20.5
Share of Private/JV 1.7 2 1.9 2.2 2.9 3.42
Offshore
Share of PSU 47.9 48.2 48.1 49.6 49.2 47.5
Share of Private/JV 58.5 71.4 57.3 37.5 23.1 20.7
Total Offshore 106.4 119.6 105.4 87.1 72.3 68.2
Grand Total 130.2 143.1 130.3 111.4 97 92.1

Sedimantary Basins in India

India has 26 sedimentary basins covering an area of 3.14 million square kilometres. The sedimentary basins of India, on land and offshore up to the 400m isobath, have an aerial extent of about 1.84 million sq. km. In the deep water beyond the 400m isobath, the sedimentary area has been estimated to be about 1.30 million sq. km.

Broadly Indian sedimentary basins have been divided into four categories based on their degree of prospective as presently known. The categorization based on the prospective of the basin as presently known is as under:

Table : Categories of Indian sedimentary basins

Table : Categories of Indian sedimentary basins
Type of basins Area (Sq. KM) Hydrocarbons Prospectivity Basins/ Region
Category I (7 Basins) 518500 Established commercial production Cambay, Assam Shelf, Mumbai offshore, Krishna Godavari, Cauvery, Assam Arakan Fold Belt and Rajasthan
Category II (3 Basins) 164000 Known accumulation of hydrocarbons but no commercial production as yet Kutch, Mahanadi-NEC & Andaman-Nicobar
Category III (6 Basins) 641000 Indicated hydrocarbon shows that are considered geologically prospective. Himalayan Foreland, Ganga, Vindhyan, Saurashtra, Kerala-KonkanLakshadweep & Bengal
Category IV (10 basins) 461200 Uncertain potential which may be prospective by analogy with similar basins in the world. Karewa, Spiti-Zanskar, Satpura-South RewaDamodar, Narmada, Decan Syneclise, Bhima-Kaladgi, Cuddapah, PranhitaGodavari, Bastar, Chhattisgarh
Deepwater 1350000   East & west cost from 400 m water depth to EEZ
Total 3134700 -  

Crude oil & natural gas production in the country is from 7 basins under category-I and deepwater areas. In category-II basins, hydrocarbon discoveries have been made but commercial production is yet to commence. The distribution of total Indian sedimentary area of 3.14 million square kilometer under different categories and deep water is presented as under:

Hydrocarbon Resources

Estimated Resources of Crude oil & Natural Gas

Conventional Hydrocarbon Resources

The prognosticated conventional hydrocarbon resources in 15 sedimentary basins and deep water areas of the country are of the order of 28.1 billion tonnes (oil and oil equivalent of gas). The basin-wise details are as under:

Table: Estimated Hydrocarbon Resources in India

Table: Estimated Hydrocarbon Resources in India
BASIN OFFSHORE (MMT) ON LAND (MMT) TOTAL (MMT)
MUMBAI 9190 - 9190
ASSAM-ARAKAN FOLD BELT - 1860 1860
CAMBAY - 2050 2050
UPPER ASSAM - 3180 3180
KRISHNA-GODAVARI 555 575 1130
CAUVERY 270 430 700
RAJASTHAN - 380 380
KUTCH 550 210 760
ANDAMAN-NICOBAR 180 - 180
KERALA-KONKAN 660 - 660
SAURASHTRA OFFSHORE 280 - 280
GANGA VALLEY - 230 230
BAENGAL 30 160 190
HIMALAYAN FORELAND - 150 150
MAHANADI 100 45 145
DEEP WATER 7000 - 7000
TOTAL 18815 9270 28085

As on 1.4.2014, In-place hydrocarbon volume of 11,543 million tonnes of oil and oil equivalent gas could be established through exploration by ONGC, OIL and Private/JV companies. So, about 59% of resources are under “yet to find category”. Out of 11,543 MMT of oil and oil equivalent gas of In-place volumes, the ultimate reserves which can be produced are about 4199 MMT of oil and oil equivalent gas since inception. The balance recoverable reserves are of the order of 2182 MMT of oil and oil equivalent gas. The break-up of hydrocarbon reserves explored by ONGC, OIL and private/JV companies in the country as on 01.04.2014 are as under:

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserve Position as on 1.4.2014

O+OEG: Oil and Oil Equivalent of Gas

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserve Position as on 1.4.2014
Initial In-Place (MMT) Ultimate Reserves (MMT) Balance Recoverable Reserves (MMT)
  Oil Gas O+OEG Oil Gas O+OEG Oil Gas O+OEG
ONG C 5388.65 2752.12 8140.77 1483.48 1365.56 2849.04 567.31 763.98 1331.29
OIL 779.07 332.96 1112.03 239.02 181.12 420.14 83.49 103.82 187.31
Pvt/JV 972.36 1317.82 2290.18 214.58 715.56 930.14 109.39 553.98 663.37
Total 7140.08 4402.90 11542.98 1937.08 2262.24 4199.33 760.19 1421.78 2181.98

Unconventional Hydrocarbon Resources

CBM Resources

The estimated Coal Bed Methane (CBM) resources are of the order of 2600 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) or 91.8 Trillion cubic feet (TCF) spread over in 11 states in the country. The state-wise details of CBM resources are as under:

Table: Coal Bed Methane Resources in India

Table: Coal Bed Methane Resources in India
Sl. No. STATE Estimated CBM Resources (BCM)
1 JHARKHAND 722.08
2 RAJASTHAN 359.62
3 GUJARAT 351.13
4 ORISSA 243.52
5 CHATTISGARH 240.69
6 MADHYA PRADESH 218.04
7 WEST BENGAL 218.04
8 TAMILNADU 104.77
9 ANDHRA PRADESH 99.11
10 MAHARASHTRA 33.98
11 NORTH EAST 8.50
Total CBM Resources 2599.48

Recoverable CBM Reserves

Recoverable CBM reserves of about 280.3 BCM (9.90 TCF) have been established by different operators as on 01.01.2014. Block wise reserves are given below:

Table 2.5: Recoverable Coal Bed Methane Reserves as on 1.1.2014

Table 2.5: Recoverable Coal Bed Methane Reserves as on 1.1.2014
S. No. Block Name Operator Reserve Established (BCM) State
1 SP(East)-CBM-2001/I RIL 47.86 Madhya
2 SP(WEST)-CBM-2001/I RIL 55.50 Pradesh Madhya
3 Raniganj (South) GEECL 54.37 West Bengal
4 RG(East)-CBM-2001/I ESSAR 60.88 West Bengal
5 Raniganj (North) ONGC 7.36 West Bengal
6 NK-CBM-2001/I ONGC 9.63 Jharkhand
7 BK-CBM-2001/1 ONGC 30.02 Jharkhand
8 Jharia ONGC 14.72 Jharkhand
Total 280.34  

Shale Gas / Oil Resource

It is estimated that a number of sedimentary basins (Gangetic plain, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh & other coastal areas) in India, including the hydrocarbon bearing ones – Cambay, Assam-Arakan, & Damodar – have large shale deposits. Various agencies have estimated the shale gas/ oil resource potential in selected sedimentary basins / sub-basins in India. The details are as under:

  • M/s Schlumberger : 300 to 2100 TCF of shale gas resource for the country.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA), USA in 2011: 290 TCF of shale gas in 4 basins (Cambay Onland, Damodar, Krishna Godavari Onland & Cauvery Onland)
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA), USA in 2013: 584 TCF of shale gas and 87 billion Barrels of shale oil in 4 basins (Cambay Onland, Damodar, Krishna Godavari Onland & Cauvery Onland)
  • ONGC: 187.5 TCF of shale gas in 5 basins (Cambay Onland, Ganga Valley, Assam & Assam Arakan , Krishna Godavari Onland & Cauvery Onland)
  • Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI): 45 TCF of shale gas in 6 sub basins ( Jharia¸ Bokaro, North Karanpura, South Karanpura, Raniganj & Sohagpur)
  • United States Geological Survey (USGS) has also estimated technically recoverable shale gas resources of 6.1 TCF in 3 basins (Cambay Onland, , Krishna Godavari Onland & Cauvery Onland) Further, USGS has indicated that these basins have also potential for shale oil.

Re-assessment of in Hydrocarbon Resources

The last Hydrocarbon resources assessment exercise was carried out approximately two decades ago. During the course of implementation of pre-NELP (New Exploration Licensing Policy) and NELP rounds and other exploration and production activities, substantial geo scientific data have been generated. New oil and gas fields have also been discovered by utilizing improved geological understanding and new technology. With the increase in exploration spread and quantum jump in availability of geo-scientific data generated under NELP, there is a need to revisit the hydrocarbon resource assessment of all sedimentary basins of India. A Multi Organization Team (MOT) comprising of representatives of ONGC, OIL and DGH is carrying out estimation of hydrocarbon resource potential in the country. The exercise of re-assessment of hydrocarbon resources for all the sedimentary basins in the country is in progress. This project is likely to be completed in 2016-17.

Crude Oil & Natural Gas Production

Crude oil production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 is about 28.171 Million Metric Tonne (MMT) by ONGC, OIL and Private/ JV Companies. About 68.5% of crude oil is by ONGC and OIL from nomination regime and remaining 31.5% of crude oil production is by Private/JV companies from PSC regime.

In 2014-15, the share of offshore crude oil production was about 50.2%. The remaining crude oil production was from 6 States viz., Andhra Pradesh (0.7%), Arunachal Pradesh (0.2%), Assam (12.1%), Gujarat (12.5%), Rajasthan (23.7%) and Tamil Nadu (0.6%). The details of crude oil production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 and last 5 years are as under:

State-wise Crude Oil Production Trends (Thousand Metric Tonnes)

State-wise Crude Oil Production Trends (Thousand Metric Tonnes)
State/Source 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15(upto Dec)
Onshore
Andhra Pradesh 303 305 305 295 297 184
Arunachal Pradesh 129 116 118 120 111 60
Assam 4743 4724 5025 4863 4709 3403
Gujarat 5962 5904 5778 5332 5061 3534
Rajasthan 447 5149 6553 8593 9180 6679
Tamil Nadu 238 233 246 238 226 176
Total Onshore 11822 16431 18025 19441 19584 14036
Share of PSUs 11089 11031 11231 10605 10171 7301
Share of Private/JV 733 5400 6794 8836 9413 6735
Offshore
Share of PSUs 17154 16972 16328 15617 15541 12108
Share of Private/JV 4529 4282 3733 2804 2663 2027
Total Offshore 21683 21254 20061 18421 18204 14135
Grand Total 33505 37685 38086 37862 37788 28171

Natural Gas Production

Natural gas production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 is about 25.319 Billion Cubic Metre (BCM) or 92.1 MMSCMD by ONGC, OIL and Private/ JV Companies. About 73.7% of natural gas production was by ONGC and OIL from nomination regime and remaining 26.3% of natural gas production was by Private/JV companies from PSC regime.

The share of offshore natural gas production in 2014-15 was about 74%. The remaining natural gas production including CBM was from 10 States viz., Andhra Pradesh (1.5%), Arunachal Pradesh (0.1%), Assam (8.9%), Gujarat (4.6%), Rajasthan (3.4%), Tamil Nadu (3.6%), Tripura (3.3%), Jharkhand (0.01%), Madhya Pradesh (0.01%) and West Bengal (0.6%). The details of Natural gas production in 2014-15 upto December 2014 and last 5 years are as under:

State-wise Natural Gas Production Trends (MMSCMD)

State-wise Natural Gas Production Trends (MMSCMD)
State/Source 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15(upto Dec)
Onshore
Gujarat 6.7 6.2 6 5.6 4.5 4.2
Assam 7.4 7.4 8 8 7.9 8.2
Andhra Pradesh 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.2 1.4
Tamil Nadu 3.2 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.6 3.3
Tripura 1.5 1.7 1.8 1.8 2.3 3.0
Rajasthan 0.7 1.2 1.6 1.9 2.7 3.1
Arunachal Pradesh 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
CBM-WB, MP, Jharkhand 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.62
Total Onshore 23.8 23.5 24.9 24.3 24.7 23.92
Share of PSUs 22 21.5 23 22.2 21.8 20.5
Share of Private/JV 1.7 2 1.9 2.2 2.9 3.42
Offshore
Share of PSUs 47.9 48.2 48.1 49.6 49.2 47.5
Share of Private/JV 58.5 71.4 57.3 37.5 23.1 20.7
Total Offshore 106.4 119.6 105.4 87.1 72.3 68.2
Grand Total 130.2 143.1 130.3 111.4 97 92.1

Coal Bed Methane (CBM)

In order to harness CBM ( Coal Bed Methane) potential in the country, CBM blocks were offered through international competitive bidding for exploration and production of CBM in the country for the first time in May 2001. So far, Government has awarded 30 CBM blocks under four rounds of bidding to National, Private & Joint Venture Companies. In addition, 2 CBM blocks were awarded on nomination basis and one block through Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) route. These CBM blocks are in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra, Odisha Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

Commercial production of CBM in India has already commenced w.e.f. July 2007 in Raniganj (South) block in West Bengal operated by Great Eastern Energy Corporation Limited (GEECL). Current CBM production in the Raniganj (South) block is about 0.35 MMSCMD. Additionally, two blocks, Raniganj (East) block operated by Essar Oil Limited is producing at the rate of 0.22 MMSCMD and Jharia operated by ONGC is producing at the rate of 6200 SCMD.

Shale Gas

Shale Gas can emerge as an important new source of energy in the country. India has several Shale formations which seem to hold Shale Gas and oil. The Shale Gas formations are spread over several sedimentary basins such as Cambay, Gondwana, Krishna-Godavari and Cauvery onland.

The Government has issued “Policy Guidelines for Exploration and Exploitation of Shale Gas and Oil by National Oil Companies under Nomination regime” on 14th October, 2013. Under this Policy, the right to exploration and exploitation of Shale Gas & Oil will lie with the NOCs holding Petroleum Exploration License (PEL)/Petroleum Mining Lease (PML) granted under the nomination regime. ONGC has commenced drilling of one well in Cambay basin in Gujarat for shale gas/Shale Oil exploration. Currently, there is no commercial production of shale gas in the country.

It is estimated that a number of sedimentary basins (Gangetic plain, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh & other coastal areas) in India, including the hydrocarbon bearing ones – Cambay, Assam-Arakan, & Damodar – have large shale deposits. Various agencies have made different estimates of shale gas and oil in the Indian sedimentary basins.

  • M/s Schlumberger: 300 to 2100 TCF of shale gas resource for the country.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA), USA in 2011: 290 TCF of shale gas in 4 basins (Cambay Onland, Damodar, Krishna Godavari Onland & Cauvery Onland).
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA), USA in 2013: 584 TCF of shale gas and 87 billion Barrels of shale oil in 4 basins (Cambay Onland, Damodar, Krishna Godavari Onland& Cauvery Onland).
  • ONGC: 187.5 TCF of shale gas in 5 basins (Cambay Onland, Ganga Valley, Assam & Assam Arakan, Krishna Godavari Onland & Cauvery Onland.
  • Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI): 45 TCF of shale gas in 6 sub basins (Jharia, Bokaro, North Karanpura, South Karanpura, Raniganj & Sohagpur).
  • United States Geological Survey (USGS) has also estimated technically recoverable shale gas resources of 6.1 TCF in 3 basins (Cambay Onland, Krishna Godavari Onland & Cauvery Onland). Further, USGS has indicated that these basins have also potential for shale oil.

Gas Hydrate

World over gas hydrate is at R&D stage. To meet the challenges of exploring gas hydrate, which is at a research stage the world over, MoPNG / DGH have signed MoU with various agencies for sharing of knowledge and scientific data:

  • MoU with USGS,
  • MoU with US-DOE,
  • MoU with US-MMS (now called US –BOEM)
  • MoU with JOGMEC, Japan
  • MoU with GFZ-POTSDAM, Germany
  • MoU with IFM-GEOMAR, Germany

Current Status

  1. NGHP carried out the Expedition-01 in 2006. The presence of significant quantities of Gas Hydrate has been established in the KG, Mahanadi and Andaman basins.
  2. NGHP Expedition 02 aims at identifying sites. NGHP Expedition 02 will consist of LWD (Logging while drilling), Coring and wire line logging programme at 20 sites in the deep water KG & Mahanadi basins. The task of identifying locations has been completed. The task of carrying out the drilling and coring programme under the NGHP Expedition-02 has been assigned to ONGC. Expenditure of NGHP Expedition-02 will be shared by 50% funds from OIDB, 20% from ONGC and 10% each from OIL, GAIL and IOCL. ONGC will be executing the NGHP Expedition-02.
  3. Expedition 03 aims at carrying out pilot production testing of at least one site in the Indian deep-water environment. However, the success of Expedition-03 depends on the success of NGHP Expedition-02.